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A general purpose mechanism for organizing elements into groups. Packages may be nested within other packages.
The specification of a variable that can be changed, passed, or returned. A parameter may include a name, type, and direction. Parameters are used for operations, messages, and events. Synonyms: formal parameter. Contrast: argument.
parameterized element
The descriptor for a class with one or more unbound parameters. Synonym: template.
In a generalization relationship, the generalization of another element, the child. See: subclass, subtype. Contrast: child.
The connection of a model element to a relationship or to a reified relationship. For example, a class participates in an association, an actor participates in a use case.
1. activity graphs: A portion of an activity graphs that organizes the responsibilities for actions. See: swimlane. 2. architecture: A subset of classifiers or packages at the same level of abstraction. A partition represents a vertical slice through an architecture, whereas a layer represents a horizontal slice. Contrast: layer.
A scheme for describing design fragments or collections of class templates so that they can be configured and reused.
persistent object
An object that exists after the process or thread that created it has ceased to exist.
The time between two major project milestones, during which a well-defined set of objectives is met, artifacts are completed, and decisions are made to move or not move into the next phase.
A textual description defining a constraint on the system when a use case has terminated.
A constraint that must be true at the completion of an operation.
A textual description defining a constraint on the system when a use case may start.
A constraint that must be true when an operation is invoked.
preliminary design review (PDR)
In the waterfall life-cycle, the major review held when the architectural design is completed (see Guidelines: Project Plan).
primitive type
A pre-defined basic datatype without any substructure, such as an integer or a string.
(1) A thread of control that can logically execute concurrently with other processes, specifically an operating system process. See also: thread. (2) A set of partially ordered steps intended to reach a goal; in software engineering the goal is to build a software product or to enhance an existing one; in process engineering, the goal is to develop or enhance a process model; corresponds to a business use case in business engineering.
1. A heavyweight unit of concurrency and execution in an operating system. Contrast: thread, which includes heavyweight and lightweight processes. If necessary, an implementation distinction can be made using stereotypes. 2. A software development process—the steps and guidelines by which to develop a system. 3. To execute an algorithm or otherwise handle something dynamically.
process view
An architectural view that describes the concurrent aspect of the system: tasks (processes) and their interactions.
A type of node which possesses the capability to run one or more processes. Generally this requires a computational capability, memory, input-output devices, etc. See also: node, process, and device.
Software that is the result of development, and some of the associated artifacts (documentation, release medium, training).
product champion
A high-ranking individual who owns the vision of the product and acts as an advocate between development and the customer.
product requirements document (PRD)
A high level description of the product (system), its intended use, and the set of features it provides.
project manager
The worker with overall responsibility for the project. The Project Manager needs to ensure tasks are scheduled, allocated and completed in accordance with project schedules, budgets and quality requirements.
Project Review Authority (PRA)
The organizational entity to which the Project Manager reports. The PRA is responsible for ensuring that a software project complies with policies, practices and standards (see Concepts: Organizational Context for the Rational Unified Process).
A mapping from a set to a subset of it.
A named value denoting a characteristic of an element. A property has semantic impact. Certain properties are predefined in the UML; others may be user defined. See: tagged value.
A specification of a compatible set of messages used to communicate between capsules. The protocol defines a set of incoming and outgoing messages types (e.g. operations, signals), and optionally a set of sequence diagrams which define the required ordering of messages and a state machine which specifies the abstract behavior that the participants in a protocol must provide.
A release that is not necessarily subject to change management and configuration control.
A vertex in a state machine that has the form of a state, but doesn’t behave as a state. Pseudo-states include initial and history vertices.
published model [MOF]
A model which has been frozen, and becomes available for instantiating repositories and for the support in defining other models. A frozen model’s model elements cannot be changed.


An association attribute or tuple of attributes whose values partition the set of objects related to an object across an association.
quality assurance (QA)
The function of Quality Assurance is the responsibility of (reports to) the Project Manager and is responsible for ensuring that project standards are correctly and verifiably followed by all project staff.

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